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Gao hongbo interviews

Article source:Poetry monthly

Release time:Jan 19, 2016Page view:125

Q: xie xuhua, gao hongbo's children's poetry researcher, is now an editor of a publishing house.

A: gao hongbo, vice chairman of China association, children's literature writer, poet, essayist.

Xie xuhua: why did you take the form of "children's poetry" when you first wrote children's literature? In particular, the two poems, "the elephant judge" and "the crocodile eating the stone", are interesting animal stories and fables that can be conveyed in a fairy tale and allegory.

Gao hongbo: the literary style that the writer is engaged in, the first choice will determine the form of creation for a long period of time. I prefer poetry, because many materials, observations and descriptions of many scenes, I subconsciously convey and describe in a poem.

Xie xuhua: is it possible to say that in the creation of children's literature, you choose to be the most familiar form?

Gao hongbo. Yes, poetry was once one of my most familiar and expressive forms of expression.

Judge XieXuHua: reading the elephant "and" crocodile "eat the stone allegory poems the two fairy tales, there is a reading experience is: in the humorous story is often hidden behind the moral lessons and rich knowledge. It was listening to a father telling a story. I think at this stage, you are creating from the father's point of view, do you agree with this statement?

Gao hongbo: this stage is really based on the father's Angle and role. In fact, my children's literary creation is closely related to my daughter. I knew I was going to be a father when I knew I was going to have a daughter and I started writing children's literature. From the heart of a little girl (child), sometimes my childhood memories, I think of the girl, but childhood memories also play a role. The two are interchanging and penetrating. Then I turned to writing the children live poetry, is purely based on the boy's mind to write, it comes from my childhood memories and life, and from my observation of the little boy beside, role reversal is a kind of book I and others.

Xie xuhua: the classification of your works seems particularly clear, and you can see the traces of the style transformation.

Gao: I early children's poem pay attention to the interest and knowledge, then to the 80 s, 1983, 1984, I consciously put the creation subject to children's lives, also want to social life into my theme scope, even those major social event. For example, "grandpa lost" is the retirement of veteran cadres, as well as the problem of fake drugs, the tragic situation of the snake charmer, and "the son of god". I was consciously trying to expand the subject. At the time, many people called children's literature "pediatrics", and I wanted to make a major theme in this "pediatrics" thing. Such as the black sea gull is a performance the iran-iraq war, then I see on TV because of the war of the pollution, a sooty too dark gull stood on the rocks, the sad picture sparked my creative impulses. These are all my attempts at a series of big themes. Of course, some of them may not be well written.

At the time, my writing was often gushing out, in a "fountain" writing state. I wrote a lot of poems, and they were written all at once, even one night. For example, "my sun", a group poem about blind children, is how I feel about attending a blind child camp. At that time, blind children were organized to take part in an activity to touch the tiananmen square. Now it may be said that the theme of caring for the disabled, but not so much at that time, is to write about the experience of the blind child with the experience. I felt sorry for the disabled children, and ponder on things, shapes, colors, music these things, the eyes can not see how children perceive, how should I explain things to them. The poems were written in the evening. There is also a group poem "the palace of literature" is actually also my literature view, I use the way of the poem to communicate with the children and discuss what is the poem, what is the fable, what is the fairy tale, what is the novel.

Xie xuhua: that is to say, when you write children's life poems and lyrics, it is from life.

Gao hongbo: many of my children's poems are about observing the child's experiences and observing life. "Penny sigh of tuning" is my child's a real experience, and it is not how to use a penny, that ZhaiZhai long yellow notes, and a penny a lot of people are used to fold into small pieces of pineapple, is no. At that time, people's life had made great progress, they were all rich, and no one paid much attention to money. But "I found a penny on the road... "The song was still alive, so the daughter went to pick up a penny, and the mother felt dirty and scolded the child. I have refined it into a poem, a lament for a penny that is no longer the moral symbol of the year. "Lucky money" and "clique" are also from the life of that time.

I've been a soldier, and I've been on the frontier for ten years. In "the secret of the fountain", I have expressed my visit to the yunnan frontier frontier for more than 100 days in 1975. The frontier plants, animals, local customs and so on, with a Beijing boy's strange perspective. The relationship between the children and the frontier, the relationship between the children and the people's liberation army, is rarely discussed, because it is a time of peace, and very few people are concerned. But I think this kind of border defense theme is very meaningful, at least can cultivate the children's national defense consciousness and masculinity.

Xie xuhua: are there any writers who influence you at home and abroad?

Gao hongbo: that's too much. I have systematically studied some excellent children's literature writers, and tried to write a history of contemporary children's literature, which is about a hundred thousand words. But no publishing house is interested, one pressure is more than 20 years. It was not until 2010 that the 21st century press was published, and I called myself "the literary history of the individual", entitled "children's literature". The poets I have studied and written in monograph are jin bo, ke yan, yuan ying, ruan zhang, xiong saisheng, field, etc. I have studied yan wenjing, jin jin, he yi and so on. I have benefited a lot from the study of these writers. For example, jin bo's pursuit of pure art, the extraordinary mastery of the children's interest, and the movement and dramatic effect of the poetry. These studies are all things I write poetry kung fu, become my creation of nutrition, which is not a specific author or article which play a role, but a subtle influence reveal in my words.

In the creation of children's literature, I am a research and creative side, with two legs, walking on two legs instead of writing all day long. The research on excellent children's literature has also established my concept of children's view and children's literature creation.

Xie xuhua: you said that jin bo has also influenced your creation, but your poems don't feel the same as jin bo's poems.

Gao hongbo: jin bo is more exquisite in art, and this kind of polishing of the art of poetry is a banner of children's poems for the pursuit of beauty in words, language and rhythm. My poems are joyous and humorous, and the difference between this style and the writer's temperament is related. It might have been better for him to write "I think", but it was my style to be a bit of a mischievous humor.

Xie xuhua: why did you turn from the creation of fairy tales to the creation of children's poems that reflect the emotions of contemporary children?

Gao hongbo: in the 1980s, China's reform and opening up was just beginning. At that time, all walks of life were emancipating the mind, and adult literature was talking about emancipating the mind. When I was a "jiefangjun bao an editor, wenyi bao" is at the forefront of such a media, is an important position of ideological emancipation, when published articles and debate Feng Mu etc. A lot of people, brought me a great shock. Children's literature is also facing the thought liberation, break through the original pure education of children's literature concept, put forward a more open children's literature, reflected in practice on the aspects such as novel, adopts a Dong Hongyou, before road and so on, the fairy tale of zheng yuanjie, I also did some try on poetry. No one wants to turn children's literature into a tool for education children.

Xie xuhua: then what is your view of children at that time? I heard that you have a book called "discovering children". Does that summarize your view of children?

Gao hongbo: what I found in the book is a series of articles that I have published in the newspaper. In the summer of 1989, because of special political background at that time, the China women's news story is not too much, yunnan army veteran, is responsible for the supplement of li-hua xie writing about me, I will give some to the child's point of view, outlook, and some interesting stories related to the children in the "China women's paper" in the form of serial publication, unexpectedly was welcomed by a large, straight serial for half a year, a total of more than 30 articles, but hasn't been written. Later, the editors of hunan children's publishing house found these articles very interesting, and they went with the comic book and became such a fun book.

90 s basic out of children's literature, because working reason, I have five, six years away from the children's literature, it was not until 1995 in China writers association secretariat in charge of children's literature, organization awards, seminar, then back to the children's literature field, I am the children found later, out of children (laughs).

The reason why I seldom write children's literature now is that my daughter is so big that she lacks observation, and there are many things to write about in the presence of children. But I still like reading about children. I also read an interesting early childhood experiment in the newspaper this morning. It was made by an American. Put the wooden doll in the middle, look at the child's performance, some children push it, some young children lift it. Then let the children find friends, and the children are willing to go to the children who help the doll to be friends, to push down, people do not like. The conclusion is that children are naturally social, and americans study these details, which I find interesting. Children's literature I am writing less now, and I have been writing for the children's pictorial in recent years. If I do not continue to write to children, I will write to my children. Abroad easy reading do well, this is a children's book market impact to China, we give children illustrated write support and wish the children's literature in China also get greater development, in line with international standards as soon as possible, is also the Chinese cultural rights of self.

Xie xuhua: from the "fountain style" in the 1980s to the present little writing, it seems that you are a sincere poet, without the feeling of hard to write.

Gao: I have this adult poetry anthology "heart sails", which reflects the view of my songs, the first song is "if I were a poet", to express the meaning as you said, not to hard to write. Children's poetry and adult poetry are interlinked, both are poems, and should not be hard to write. The poem should have certain artistic sex, music beautiful, melodic beauty, children's poetry only adds some perspective, the child's perspective. Good children poets should also be fond of, good adult poetry children also can accept, should be long and young salt appropriate, old and small all good works.

XieXuHua: from the early main animal fairy tale allegorical poem, then mainly to the children's lives poetry and lyrics, in 89 when you created with folk color "with the dragon god pigeons" long narrative poems, fairy tale is not the same as before and, what is the motivation for you create a long narrative poem fairy tale?

Gao hongbo: allegorical poems have a very normative character, so some of my later children's poems have re-examined the allegorical poems and created some images of "anti-tradition". China is short of narrative long poems, and no one has ever created this kind of fairy tale narrative after the children's literature, ruan zhang, "the golden conch" and the "marlin flower" by the bear. I want to try out the possibility of this long poem in the subjects of national subjects and historical subjects, so this book is my attempt to make the long poem consciously. I think the children will like this subject with exquisite illustrations. But my idea was too advanced at the time. One was that there was no such exquisite illustration, no one drew it, and the second was that people didn't know enough about the historical and cultural traditions. Therefore, I want to find the material of expression in the folk literature, from liaozhai and other literary classics, and create a long poem with modern significance. I value these three poems very much.

My ideas were always ahead of me, and I noticed animal novels in the 1980s, and animal novels did get hot. In 1985, I advocated humor, and the children's literature was too much to teach people. It was the subject of puppy love, so it was not funny, and children's literature should be humorous.

Xie xuhua: you said the three fairy tale long poem, that is "flying dragon", "the legend of dove tree" and "the pipa beetle". According to my data, the first two were published in 1989, the pipa beetle was published in 1995, and the same genre, why did it take so many years?

Gao hongbo: "the pipa beetle" was also created around 1989 and published late. These three fairy tales were created in the same period, which is about 1989, and the time of writing is almost the same. It is not about the draft, it is the spontaneous self-conscious creation desire.

XieXuHua: look from the writing time, the fairy tale long published poetry anthology "dragon pigeon with god" in "the elephant judge", "eat crocodile stone" and so on fairy tales fable of poetry, "goose goose goose", shouted the fountain of the secret of children's lyric poetry anthology, present a different artistic style, this is you interested in art exploration? Why did they write about the genre?

Gao: at that time, there are two factors, external cause is a is written the fairy tale long poems before and after I was studying in Peking University, the teaching of classical literature teacher Mr Ma Zhenfang let us review for "serial" writings in classical style, 25, was "serial" had a read through, with the writings in classical style to the 25 article has carried on the review, I like to work including "pigeon vision", this is the legend of a pigeon. This is the cultural background. At that time, I and two or three friends originally wanted to write a history of Chinese contemporary literature. I divided a number of my favorite writers and poets into this book review, and each person was about 5,000 to eight dry words. Among the subjects I studied were ruan zhang, the voice of the bear and the horse. All three of them have tried the writing of fairy tales in children's literature since the founding of the People's Republic of China. For example, ma xiaoxiao's "the legend of the stone archway" is a collection of narrative poems based on folk stories. "The horse orchid" was written by the bear. Ruan zhang has written "the golden whelk" and "the story of the monkey ancestors". I've studied them all. So these two reasons, on the one hand, in theory I have made some comments on the elder writers, to absorb the nutrition. On the other hand, my own studies, through the evaluation of classical literature works, deepen this aspect of schooling. The third reason is an editor of the anhui children's society, the pen name baby grass (the money leaf). He also wrote a lot of good children's poems, and I wrote his review of the refraction of human consciousness. He proposed to run a poetry magazine, especially children's narrative long poem, is the fairy tale narrative long poem. These three factors prompted the I decided to try a narrative poem writing fairy tales, this time there is no more the limitation of subject matter, nor a broader background, mainly baby grass of the fairy tale long poem poetry is a very important opportunity. Later after I wrote two, and a few comrades wrote, it is said that the poet came out, but then I also didn't see, may also lose money, later issued what also don't know much about it. This is anhui children's publishing house's attempt at that time. Later, when he was the editor-in-chief of a publishing house in Beijing, he stopped writing children's poems. He wrote a lot of good children's poems, and then he had this desire to explore, and he wrote two of them, and then he wrote the third, and the last one was called the pipa beetle. "The dragon and the dove" came out earlier, but the third one was a little bit later, but it was close to three, within a year or two. In the writing of these three fairy tales, I try to add some elements of Chinese folk tales and some elements of myths and legends to my understanding of the long narrative poems. For example, guo xiaochuan's general trilogy has its own theoretical ideas and framework. There are also characters and plots, poetry and artistic conception, language and so on. I think the more important long narrative poem should have plot and characterization. There is also the progress of the plot, which cannot be dominated by pure lyricism. In this context, I combine the allegorical poem I wrote before those animals, every capital actually can see as a narrative poem, with this training, expanding 50 lines of small narrative poem for longer after I've done epic fairy tale, also does not have too much difficulty. So before that I have somewhere between the two fairy poem called "mice learn to fly", this song is more long, longer than the general animal poems, nearly fronted line, also has the story also has characters, after the last write learning to fly a little mouse grow wings flying squirrels, under many of the same kind of derision, even under the ridicule of the owl, finally obtained the ability to fly. When I wrote this poem, I was writing unconsciously, writing long. So to these three is conscious, as a kind of fairy tale long poem, based on the folk tales of fairy tales to create, to write, to structure, this is intentional. And when you want to do an artistic exploration in fairy tale long poem, you wrote to a few, but in the end not form a big social influence, this kind of art to explore the last to go away, nowhere. There is no such thing as the "golden whelk" and the "magnolia" in the 1950s. Because the time is different, so you write and write, published and published. But as an individual, I still value all three of my works. Write invested a lot of emotion, art is also prepared to, at the same time, the time also had 7, 8 years of training to the foundation of children's poem writing, in the refined language, artistic conception of the construction, shape and characters of long poems on the progress of the story I have made some discussions. I personally cherish these three poems. Because it's kind of a bigger piece of my work. The last one is two poems, but in fact, the last one is written. In fact, the actual completion is three. So this year I to fuzhou, fuzhou children's club an editor look for me to draw this script, I say this I did not have a script, but I can give you this three fairy tale long poems have a look, if you put it in the form of picture books, the child should be fun. Because I've seen a Russian or which country the story of a bear, also a fairy tale, long poems performance from a bear back to the city in the forest, forest gone after back, sadly, it sat on a lone hill overlooking the city, behind this is, in fact, there is a big culture field of vision, kinds of environmental protection consciousness. In fact, children's poems can show more important themes.

XieXuHua: like you in the preface to the "dragon pigeon with god" also mentioned, try fairy tale of long poems on the one hand because of less impressed by this kind of poetry, on the other hand you write fairy tale allegorical poem before a development can become a long poem, fairy tale so write up more conveniently. Is there any other consideration? What do you think of the traditional Chinese culture or folk tales? Are they suitable for children?

Gao hongbo: if it comes to this topic, you can combine my other work. At that time, I was the deputy director of the press department, and was responsible for the selection of major themes in the front page of literary and art daily. At that time, I remember that the Chinese animated film was lost at the annecy animation film festival, so the defense secretary zhang aiping wrote a letter to the central committee. The old general was worried about the loss of Chinese animation in the international competition and gave me a big shock. Then I had an interview with at that time, a group of workers engaged in children's art film, including the great artist now han meilin, including CCTV animation director, the director of CCTV ShaoErBu these people in the industry. They have provided me with good news material from the aspects of funds, personnel and treatment. At that time, I wrote a story on the front page of literary and art newspaper called "after anaxi's failure", because Chinese cartoons should be said to be among the best in world art films. "The heaven", "which zha make the sea", "three monks", and "small carp jump longmen" before, "pig eight quit to eat watermelon, don't mind and not happy, everyone think that China has been leading in this field, suddenly found washed-up, lags behind, what was" astro boy ", the Smurfs, the story of the mole, etc > in sparse inside hua. Even the then defence minister, general zhang aiping, was worried. It was a big stimulus for me, and it was in the mid - to late eighties. More than a decade later, jiang zemin, the general secretary, offered to seize the job, and he found a lot of crisis in early childhood literature from his little grandson. He offered to grab three big pieces, including children's literature, more than a decade later. At the time of the interview, and general zhang aiping's messenger I feel Chinese children's literature, including children's poem if you want to development, local culture should be mining resources, local resources is very, very rich, why aren't you dig. I made this argument over and over again at several subsequent meetings. Is the Chinese native culture has a lot of myths, legends, folk stories, they have the kind of Oriental flavor rich color, fantasy, humorous, witty, and so on, all have an innate quality of animation. We should reflect on it by the modern concept and to rearrange it, let us in the modern age, the contemporary children to recognize in the heritage of our ancestors has a rich cultural nutrition, it is a huge cultural heritage, which requires the artist's a kind of investment, a kind of nutrition can resolve cultural heritage, in this way can we put the books into a fresh artistic image. Under this kind of motive, I think in my three fairy long poems creation subconscious will have this kind of factor, so from granny's legend, from serial story, from what I see desert beetle inside I found three long poem of nuclear, discover them.

Xie xuhua: from the reading, I can also feel your attention to the Chinese folk tradition, to form such a long, relatively heavy work. But I feel that these three long poems are different from folk tales, including the golden conch in the 1950s and the marlin flower. The fairy tale of the '50 s long poem creation of folk story rewrite or taking a simple folk spirit, such as firmness, the pursuit of a happy life, be well, jack shall have Jill, and so on simple feelings have a succession. But there are some differences between you and them. "the pipa beetle" is about the pursuit of the ideal at the cost of life; "Dragon" is on the spur of the moment a young man mistakes bring friendship dying of pain, this is the modern feelings, are you in the old story into a modern spirit?
Gao hongbo: yes. I am consciously reflect this, is the new bar in old bottles, because, after all, was in the mid and late 80 s, we have had thought liberation movement, and the past traditional I have from my point of view some theoretical comb, for some classic masterpiece, I have carried on the absorption of nutrients, I also have my own opinion, his gain and loss in fact, I already have my own judgment in the heart, so I write I certainly not in accordance with the senior writer s that kind of attitude towards folklore to write, they may be more faithful to that era folk tales of a cognitive ideology, I this is likely to be more rich, the characteristics of the eighty s also more in line with my personal creative personality, writing even if I want to according to the original story, but also involuntarily I write this bifurcation to it should go this way. Such as "the legend of the dove tree" the pigeon inside female, in fact, the story basically faithful to serial "pigeon vision", but finally have my own processing technique, the female is in fact or pigeons fly away after god, finally the protagonist into a wandering river's lake chivalrous man, that's my personal romantic writing, I also like martial arts, hope the hero finally can realize his revenge. This is not in the studio. At the end of the liaozhai, he sent the dove to the elder. The pigeon was a strange pigeon, and the two eyes were transparent. The elder said it tasted good, and gave it to him, and the man was especially disappointed. That's a very simple detail. But I noticed a little about the pigeon could actually looked through between two eyes, the image one would like to have special taste, is enough to constitute a very long poems have the characteristics of the fairy tales, and I was kind of love, of natural plant grafting a dovetree legends of the tree again, to go into the dovetree childe, even more branches, more interesting, although is a serial story added a lot of troubles, but looks more like a poem, and comedy story has great different, at the same time the human the pursuit of some good, some flying rising desire on my line, so, it can have a variety of points for people to think, maybe this is a special art form of the poem, and other novel what is different, it is the imagination is bigger, you can imagine the dovetree childe and white girl can be a kind of mysterious emotional connections, can also imagine a white girl is pigeon, god finally took all the pigeons fly away, the last serial so end, so I want him to revenge finally, add a lot of this, this conforms to the children's psychological, or conform to the traditional Chinese hope to have a happy result of life of righteous itinerant persons.

Xie xuhua: but I think your three long poems are very sad, the folk tales are often the happy ending, but your little beetle finally made a leap to the Yellow River and made a lightning bolt with life. The dragon also lost its friendship and could never find it again. "The legend of the dove tree" finally has a bright tail and symbolic meaning, but it is still a tragedy.

Gao hongbo: yes, in the dove tree, because of his carelessness and credulity, he lost his precious pigeon, and actually lost the trust of the dove god. Or fate has not grasped his providence. There are many human weaknesses that I would like to show here, which may be different from the writers of the 1950s. I want to give people more space to think and imagine, to provide the small readers with a sense of self-judgment, not to say everything, is my conscious artistic attempt. If you said the special understanding seems to take in everything in a glance means nothing, poetry is to leave a blank, leave a melancholy, a kind of aftertaste, there is a lingering taste, I think this is the state of art. You want to make the point that everyone knows the story, you put it in a new kind of connotation, it might be different, you think it's fun at least. Children look at a cycle, the old monk to tell stories, the old monk to tell the story of don't finish, the last to see the old monk is the horse teng, is actually completely is also true of people, so you his own ideas go, poetry in also is really finished in one of three sigh. After that, as for what I want to say as a young friend of your readers, it's a matter of opinion.

Xie xuhua: your fairy tale creation reflects a unique style, which breaks the narrow circle of children's poems and gives people a broader view. It is to break through the tradition and the modern, to activate the ancient legend with modern emotion. This can be said to coincide with the ideal of "cultural roots" poetry in the adult poetry world. You mentioned work in the literary and art newspaper, so the current thought is very keen, is it also influenced by adult poetry?

Gao hongbo: I was very involved in all kinds of new ideas of literature at that time. Because of literary criticism, many thoughts were involved. What you say makes sense. In addition, why I said that the animation was very exciting to me, including the letter of general zhang aiping, in fact, there was a picture in the mind. Why, after more than twenty years, I hope some people have made it into a picture book and want to find the right painter to draw it. This is of a thought in my mind, I think have a natural kinship between poetry and painting, especially if roots on the soil of folk folk tale long poems, with the traditional Chinese painting material performance, it should be very nice. When I write, I have pictures in my head, and I try to keep the rhythm of music. There is no special long sentence. Is short, and the place I was being Guo Xiaochuan "general trilogy", I also study ogawa narrative poem, he used short sentences, but very interesting, very has the flavor of ancient Chinese poems.

Xie xuhua: that is to say, your creation is not intentionally influenced by this adult poetry.

Gao: that's not too big effect, I just feel that my mind is the Chinese folk story folk material, because at that time I read the Chinese classics reading too much more special, feel the good things much more special, especially lack of mining, the lack of our modern people with a view of modern consciousness to our books and reproduce.

XieXuHua: through reading for your children's poem creation as a whole, I think you did a lot of children's poem form attempt and exploration, from the fairy tale allegorical poem to express modern children's emotion and to rich folk color fairy long poems, what prompted you to children's poem do not limited to try something different in one area?

Gao hongbo: I have a lot of things to do with my personality, hobbies, or concerns of that period. Not entirely swayed by some fashion, in fact, the children's literature creation everyone pay attention to some problems in the literature, like puppy love problems, such as the moon is bright tonight, I was also involved in a lot of discussion, I personally still more scri le by rein. I think that's the time when I wrote children's poems because the first weapon I got into literature was poetry, and I didn't write essays, I didn't write reportage, I didn't write reviews. It is natural to turn something into a poem, and some of the material is quickly expressed in the form of poetry as my first choice. Then the poem became my first choice, and I chose the children's poem creation. After that, all the feelings I felt were transformed into the first form of art is poetry. Finally, by the end of the 1980s, when I wrote essays and reportage, some ideas were no longer better in the form of poetry, perhaps more profound and more free, after all, there were rules of art. So you said these three changes isn't for my personal, I think I should think so wrote, how to write how to write, no one limits me, nobody remind me how to write. But like you said the fairy tale long poem is a group of people to make an agreement, we do a writing experiment on this kind of art class, that is conscious, just write the fairy tale long poem. The previous genre was based solely on the perception and judgment of the society. For example, in the early fairy tales, because I particularly like fables, I like fairy tales, study liu zheng, study Aesop's fables, study the fable of krissoff, and study feng xuefeng's fable. After the study, I think the children should also like it very much, so I use the way of poetry to be suitable for children. I think the children should like it very much, so I will write it. I wrote this batch. Second, my daughter was born, she is the only child, in her growing up, through her perspective I have found a lot of interesting things in life. Me if not I may not feel through the perspective of children, so I with she felt, for example, take her to the park, such as writing "small", "birthday", "I think", including the kid in our building that is real, we are building a bunch of kids, her ah, is ah, is a bunch of real children, but I give invented their stories, the poems in the Beijing daily published a particularly strong responses of floor, we have to wear shoes - have a sleep, bed-wetting, have dinner, and so on one batch, all is the name of the child, playing the piano, all are real children, when I write, they are four or five years old, I don't know they have already become the hero in my poem. That's how children's life poetry was written. So in essence I might not be the kind of poet who had to build some kind of building block in advance, with a particular artistic conception. A lot of times it's just a flood of emotion that comes out of it, and it goes off to a fork in the road, and he goes there, and then he writes, and then he writes something else.