Article source：Liberation Daily
Release time：Jun 05, 2017Page view：120
Interviewer: Gu Xuewen
Interviewee: Gao Hongbo
Children are the future of the country and the hope of the nation. The annual "61 Children's Day" is a good wish for the healthy, happy and happy growth of children.
On the eve of another Children's Day, "Reporter" interviewed Gao Hongbo, vice chairman of the Chinese Writers Association. This writer who has created many excellent fairy tales and beautiful poems for children always cares about children's literature which is regarded as "Pediatrics".
Today, when children 's literature turns from cold to hot and becomes the "sweetheart" of the market, Gao Hongbo believes that he must also be especially vigilant about literature being driven by the whiplash of a market economy: "Things to be written for children are sloppy.
Poet, essayist, member of the CPPCC National Committee, vice chairman of the Chinese Writers Association, director of Children's Literature Committee.
Essay "Private Message" won the Third National Children's Literature Award for outstanding works. "I think" won the first prize for outstanding works of children's literature, was selected into primary language teaching materials.
Children's problems reflect the parents' problems
Reporter: "June 1 Day" is a children's festival, but many people, including children and parents, are sighing. At present, children have no childhood but heavy academic burden.
Gao Hongbo: that children have no childhood, is a false proposition. At any age, children can have childhood. During the War of Resistance Against Japan, the environment was so bad and the conditions were so tough that there was still a childhood record by Feng Zikai.
The crux of the problem is how we understand childhood. If you look at a child with the eyes of an adult, it is easy to turn a blind eye to the needs of the child; if you force the child to live according to your requirements, the child is really no childhood.
In fact, the needs of children is very easy to meet, but we often do not communicate well with their children, did not understand their real needs.
Reporter: What caused our indifference to children's needs?
Gao Hongbo: Now parents like to put their own wishes did not achieve, all put the child's weak shoulders, and made themselves and their children are very anxious, in addition to scores, certificates, eyes do not see the other.
Reporter: You are also a parent. Are you anxious about your daughter's growth?
Gao Hongbo: basically no. I would like my child to be healthy and healthy and will not force her to do anything.
In the early 1980s, my daughter was born. Before, my poetry and prose writing mostly revolved around my ten-year military career. But then looked at the daughter of just full moon, I have a kind of urge to write poetry for her. I want to tell my daughter through poetry, my expectations of her, that is, physical and mental health, happy growth. My daughter wanted to be a kindergarten teacher and later wanted to go to the zoo as a manager. Now she's an ordinary tech worker, but she's happy, that's enough.
The child chooses to do what he or she wants to do well. It is not the child's own choice. You are forced to do so. He / she is not good or happy. I and Bing Xin, Chen Blowing and other predecessors have contacts, their hope for children are all healthy and happy, their educational concept has a profound impact on me.
Reporter: But now many children are not happy, often there will be negative news about children, in your opinion, what happened to children today?
Gao Hongbo: I was very surprised and very sad when I first saw the news about a kid jumping off a building.
Children's problems, more to reflect the problem of parents. Parents are the children's first responsible person, do not put any problems put the responsibility to the community. Children in the process of growing up, will encounter all kinds of troubles, this time, parents are his only dependents, if parents do not afford to understand, understand and help children's responsibility, but blame the people, blame the strange that you let the children Who to rely on?
Teaching is better than teaching, parents are children's first teacher. Some parents complain that children do not love to read books, but parents do not have their own books? Have children and children reading? I did not set a good example, the children crooked, strange who?
To say that children's literature is "pediatrics" is illustrating its importance
Reporter: Let the child grow up physically and mentally healthy, seemingly simple, in fact, not easy to do.
Gao Hongbo: Just like the health of your body, you should also lay a good foundation for your mental health.
Reporter: Which of these, children's literature can play what role?
Gao Hongbo: The healthy growth of the soul needs a healthy spiritual food, the spiritual food is children's literature.
Borges said: "All great literature will eventually become children's literature." Or it can be said that children's literature is the beginning of man's literature, and literature has returned to its origins and beginnings. By reading children's literature, children expand their horizons, accumulate experience of dealing with setbacks, establish their own values and develop a positive mental state. With such a foundation, life is less likely to go extremes.
Writer Zhang Wei once said: "Children's literature is not only not a preliminary literature, but also the entrance, foundation, and even the core of the whole literature.Any writer, the elements of children's literature, stripped from the creation and replacement, not Will be a good writer. "This passage represents a mature writer's understanding of children's literature.
Reporter: Children's literature is not "pediatric" as some people think.
Gao Hongbo: It's not wrong to say that children's literature is "pediatrics," because this shows the importance of children's literature. Are not all of us seeing pediatrics as a pediatric during our childhood? Pediatrics is not related to the growth of all healthy?
Reporter: You are from the daughter to write poetry, embarked on the road to the creation of children's literature. In an essay, you wrote: "Boys, girls, you all love poems, because being friends with poetry is a happy thing." Why are you so eager to introduce "children and Poetry as a friend?
Gao Hongbo: Poetry is the core of literature, and poetry is the closest to innocence. Being close to poetry increases children's innocence and wit, gives them a special perspective and perspective on life, and at the same time makes their language more colorful and vivid.
Abroad, the two literary identity most valued, one is a poet, one is a children's literature. So I often jokingly said: I am the most proud of the people who write poetry to children, the most proud of.
Children's writers are born, not created
Reporter: Children's literature is so important, how can we judge the merits of children's literature?
Gao Hongbo: Outstanding children's literature, on the basis of preserving the elements of literary values, is characterized by simple language and sincere emotions. The characters "always on the road" have no gap with the children.
Good children's literature allows small readers to generate and maintain compassion and curiosity. When I was in junior high school, I read Verne's "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea" and made me curious about the world. I have a deep memory so far.
Reporter: What kind of writer can create excellent children's literature?
Gao Hongbo: Children's literary creation requires a wonderful ability. At least the writer must maintain the relative purity of the mind. Use innocent children's eyes to look into the world. So, to a certain extent, children's writers are born, not created. He needs three support points: innocence, poetry and love.
No childlike innocence, write the work is not playful, the children do not like to see; no poetry, works lack of artistic appeal; and love is the most basic elements of all excellent children's literature, are based on the author of the child Love. How can one write down children's love-see, sunshine-filled works when one sees a child and wants to kick a kick, a person with an indifferent temperament? Children's literature first have the temperature and heat, and then is the depth and breadth.
Reporter: You and a number of older children's writers have had exchanges, they left you what kind of impression?
Gao Hongbo: They are all funny people.
I tell the story of the famous children's writer Yan Wenjing. He has a lot of jobs, heavy workload, but the bones is an "old urchin", the fairy tales written particularly well. Yan'an period, he was home with a little cock, neighbors also have a cock. Yan Wenjing found that every time two cocks fought, his cock was lost, because his neighbor's cock had a fight, and his hair was full on his neck. It looked particularly awesome and scared off his own cock. In order to help their little cock win the battle, Yan Wenjing even secretly caught the neighbor's cock, unplug the cock neck ring that hair. Harm each other has never thought to understand: how some people do not steal chicken, light chicken neck hair to pull it?
On another occasion, I signed a book with Yan Wenjing, and the name he signed for the children was "Old Rabbit Yan Wenjing." I and he are rabbits, he is 36 years old, so I called "rabbit."
This is the innocence of the old writer, stubborn, so he can create a naughty lovely character like Don Xiaoxi.
The transformation of previous adult children's writing of adult literature is now reversed
Reporter: The development of Chinese children's literature, what kind of historical path has passed?
Gao Hongbo: The combination of children and literature gave birth to children's literature. Its history is 300 years in the world and shorter in China only 100 years. However, once this literary form has been established in China, it has a particularly stable and unique literary form. Ye Shengtao, Zhang Tianyi, Bing Xin, Zheng Zhenduo and Zhou brothers and other literary predecessors, have contributed to this literary category, Zhou Zuoren also published articles on children's literary theory.
However, because of various historical reasons, children's literature has entered a period of silence. More than 30 years ago, there were only two children's literature publishing houses in China, one in Shanghai and one in Beijing. At that time, society generally did not value children's literature. Former Secretary of the Ministry of Culture and Children Division Secretary Luo Ying, the eldest sister said at the time: we do children's literature, to run the broken legs, worn mouth, together with sweat and tears, to make one thing; despite this, But we still have to do things because it is to cultivate fertile soil for the growth of the next generation.
Reporter: I heard that children's books were hard to be published at that time. Children's literary theory monographs do not have any place to go.
Gao Hongbo: Not only is it hard for children's books to be published, there are also fewer people who have created children's literature. Some very good children's literature writers later transformed adult literary works. Such as the famous writer Wang Anyi, readers mostly because of "Everlasting Regret," and other works to know her, few people know that she had created a very good children's literature "Who is the future of the squadron leader." And our national association president Tie Ning, also from the literature of literature onto the road, "no button red shirt" is her masterpiece. Iron condensate teacher Xu Guangyao, is the "soldier Zhang Ga" author.
Reporter: In recent years, children's literature has achieved considerable progress. Last year, Cao Wenxuan won the International Andersen Award and even aroused the craze for children's literature.
Gao Hongbo: Cao Wenxuan won the award, increasing our literary self-confidence, confirming our children's literature is no worse than foreign children's literature. It should be noted that Cao Wenxuan's award-winning is not an isolated phenomenon, but an enhancement of the overall creative power of domestic children's literature.
At present, our children's literary creation team, Ren Rong dissolves in the mid-90s, Jin Bo in his 80s, Yin Jianling, Li Donghua and Xue Tao in the post-1970s, and even the rising young writer after 1980s, Can be described as strong and strong troops, talent.
Moreover, the former is the transformation of adult literary children's literary creation adult literature, and now it is the reverse, a group of famous writers, such as Ah Lai, Zhang Wei, Xiao Fuxing, Zhao Lihong and others, have joined the creation of children's literature. For example, Zhang Wei, he has a strong complex of children's literature, "Looking for Fish King" is already his third children's literature. Last year, he was very pleased to find manuscripts of "Lion Cliff", a children's literature that he wrote when he was 18 years old.
Reporter: Some experts predict that Chinese children's literature will usher in the "Golden Year." But behind the huge achievements and bright prospects, there are also real worries. One of the main points is that the huge amount of publishing can hardly hide the current situation of uneven works.
Gao Hongbo: Just now, 30 years ago, there were only two children's literature publishing houses in the country. Today, more than 500 publishing houses in China publish children's literature. The phenomenon of radish does not wash the mud quickly, but I want to emphasize that the situation today is not easy.
Give an inappropriate example. Fifties and sixties of last century, non-staple food is limited supply, I remember the Chinese New Year, we lined up a long team, in order to buy a pound of peanuts. But now, you go to the supermarket to see, so many things, how to pick your worry. Are you going back to the age of queuing to buy peanuts or are you willing to accept the "pain" of the present choice?
Be vigilant and can not be spirited by a market economy into a spinning top
Reporter: The other aspect of children's literature creation being criticized at the moment is that more works have been imported and the strength of original creation is not enough.
Gao Hongbo: Children's literature is barefoot across national boundaries, go abroad. The same is a six or seven year old child, American children, Chinese children and Russian children, reading interest is about the same. Foreign good children's literature of course, we must continue to introduce, and our good work, but also to go abroad, foreign children also like to read.
To say that our original ability is weaker than that of foreign countries is a matter of cultural self-confidence. We have a lot of excellent children's literature, not weaker than abroad, such as "Magic pen Ma Liang" "Dalin and Kobayashi" "treasure gourd secret" and so on, we have a large number of rich ethnic characteristics of the classic works. However, some publishers always think that the foreign classic is a classic, but do not regard our own classic as a classic. They do not attach importance to the selection of topics, marketing and promotion, and do not promote local original works.
Reporter: How do you evaluate the status of domestic children's literature creation?
Gao Hongbo: It can be said that the situation is gratifying. The creative team has formed a situation of five generations.
The writers are still well written, and a group of young writers, including Zuo Xi, Tang Tang, Chen Shigu, Xiao Hsuan and others, are different from the traditional ones in their thinking. Their works have a world-wide view before they are created Great vision and freshness.
Reporter: Are you still writing children's literature?
Gao Hongbo: I myself am also adhering to the creation of children's literature, not only writing for "Illustrated Young Children's Books", but also creating a series of books entitled "Happy Pig Bobo Fly".
Every time I write, I try my best to make myself an equal interlocutor with my children and friends, and become the true friend of the children. To be full of warmth and happiness to create, write things to children, must not face with a face.
Reporter: Imagination is an important indicator of whether a child's literature is excellent or not. What is the performance of domestic children's literature in terms of imagination?
Gao Hongbo: A few days ago, I participated in a long fairy tale "One Thousand Beating Buds" seminar by Hunan writer Zhou Jing. The novel draws on folk stories, tells the story of grandma and 12 aunt. Grandma's character with the meaning of the creation of God, 12 aunt have their own magical powers, a cry aunt, tears will become pearl, imaginative ocean wanton.
Of course, the overall imagination of Chinese writers is not enough, which may be related to our long-term education system. The imagination of Chinese writers really needs to be greatly enhanced and even erupted.
In addition to imagination, children's literature writers also need further preparation for literary cultivation and philosophical accomplishment. Nowadays, some writers lack of in-depth thinking on society on the one hand, and lack the expressive ability to explain in simple terms after thinking.
Reporter: The lack of such ability may be related to the creative attitude and the speed of creation.
Gao Hongbo: Yes, those famous forefathers children's writers treat creation as very rigorous and careful. They keep improving and thinking repeatedly because they think that what they write to their children is sloppy. And now there are some young writers, wow, can write eight, 10. Such writing can slip yourself into a trap, and it is easy to write it yourself.
Creation should still be static, slower, more polished; should be less ordered, more passion burning initiative.
Reporter: From cold to hot, children's literature to become the publishing market incense, what do you have to remind it?
Gao Hongbo: Be vigilant and can not be whipped into the top of the market economy. Writers should have their own attitude to literature.
Now is the golden age of children's literature creation. There are currently 367 million underage readers in China. With the advent of the "second child", the team will also expand. However, this is also a period in which people's determination is determined. Under the heart, to resist the temptation.
Social benefits are very important for spiritual and cultural products and are especially important for children's literature because children lack the ability to distinguish. If we neglect the social benefits of children's literature, the more works we create, the more harm may be done. Moreover, there is a relatively low barrier to entry for children's literature. It is for this reason that every writer of children's literature should have a sense of quality, be fearful, stay away from impetuousness and come up with truly outstanding works.
Reporter: What can we do to create a good environment for the creation of children's literature?
Gao Hongbo: The development of children's literature can not be separated from the support of social enthusiasts, and it can not be without government support.
Give me an example of what happened to me. I have won the Chen Bo blowing children's literature many times, and later also became the judge of this award. This award was almost impossible to go. Because when Mr. Chen Blow set up this award, using his hard-earned saved 60,000 yuan royalties. At that time, 60,000 yuan to buy seat garden house more than. However, with the development of the times, this money is not enough.
The situation was Chen Lao's hometown, Shanghai Baoshan District government know, after a collective discussion, this award was included in the district government cultural projects, each year to give 2000000 yuan fund sponsorship, so, this award not only did not interrupt, but also expanded the scale, Became an international award for children's literature.
Respect for culture, culture should be decent. Literary awards lead and encourage literary creation. Some good literary awards, we should stick to it. The International Hans Christian Andersen Prize was not very influential at first, but you insist on it and have today's international influence.
(Editor: Wang Yiting)